The China Template Association website organized a delegation of 10 members of the Korean Architectural Formwork Technology Study Group to visit South Korea from July 5th to 10th, 2004, and received warm reception from the Korean Taiyong Template Company. The company and HOSUNG Company were carefully arranged. The template production situation, visited four formwork construction sites. Through this inspection, we have further understanding of the level of template and scaffold production and construction technology and management mode in Korea. South Korea's formwork company is close to the situation of China's formwork companies in terms of production scale, technical level and equipment conditions, but Korea's experience in introducing and promoting foreign advanced formwork technology is worth learning and thinking.
1. Introduction to two template companies
1.1 Taiyong Template Company
Founded in 1998, the company was founded by three employees who have worked in SYMONS and DOKA in Germany. After six years of technical development and engineering application, the company has developed greatly and has become a company. One of the three professional bridge formwork companies in Korea. At present, the company has 24 employees, including 15 workers, with a monthly output of 200 tons. The main products are various column formwork, pier mold, pier cap mold, box channel mold, bridge mold, single wall mold, climbing mold, and strong load scaffolding, bridge frame and so on.
1.2 HOSUNG Template Company
The company was founded in 1997 with a registered capital of 50 million won (equivalent to 390,000 yuan). After several years of development, the accumulated capital in 2001 reached 2.027 billion won (equivalent to 15.84 million yuan). The company has 80 employees and an annual output value of 2.8 billion won (equivalent to 21.87 million yuan). The company specializes in the production of building templates, and its production scale is the third among similar template companies. The main products are steel frame plywood formwork, the steel frame is solid belly steel, and the rib height is 63.5mm. The width of the flat template is 300, 400, 450, 600mm, and the length is 900, 1200, 1500 mm. In addition, there are three corner templates, a corner template, a stigma template, an inlay template, a beam template, and a circular arc. Templates, etc., as well as a variety of template accessories, the variety specifications are very complete.
2. Some experiences
Most of the Korean formwork companies were developed in the 1990s. The scale is relatively small, the number of employees is less than 100, and there are few production workers. The production process does not form an automated production line, which is similar to the situation of China's formwork production plants, but the production efficiency is relatively high. Gao, such as Taiyong template company is a professional bridge formwork company, production equipment is also relatively simple, but the average annual output of workers is 160t / person. Year, while the average annual output of workers in China's bridge formwork company is generally 30 ~ 40 t / person. year. I visited four formwork construction sites, and the application of the formwork and brackets was far from the technical level of the European formwork company, which is very close to the application of the formwork in China.
2.1 Improve the template system and promote the application of advanced construction methods
South Korea's formwork system is also based on the study and introduction of foreign advanced formwork technology, developed and popularized. In the 1990s, the 63-type steel frame plywood formwork was introduced from the US SYMONS company. At present, many professional production plants have been established and a complete template has been formed. The system has been widely used in the construction of walls, beams, columns and floor slabs for construction projects.
The aluminum alloy formwork system is applied in the construction of the wall, beam, column and floor formwork, and the quick release mode system is adopted in combination with the floor formwork, and the use effect is very good. This type of stencil is small in size and light in weight. It can be handled by one person. It has a long service life and can be used hundreds of times. The template recovery rate is high. The comprehensive economic benefits of the construction method are better. There are still many applications in the template project.
In the construction of floor slabs in Korea, there are many types of stencils, such as laminated plywood, plain plywood, plastic formwork, aluminum alloy formwork and steel frame plywood formwork. The slab formwork supports steel struts or aluminum alloy struts. There is also a truss die, the adjustable truss is placed on the upper end of the side mold of the beam, and the bottom mold is supported by the gantry. This type of support system is characterized by simple slab support, fast construction speed, large space on the construction site, and convenient for workers. Operation, on-site construction civilization. The fastener-type steel pipe scaffolding is only used for the outer scaffolding, the fasteners are steel plate fasteners, and the Ma Steel fasteners are not seen.
Angle templates, profiled templates, cylinders and bridges, piers, bridges and other templates are steel templates, and no combined steel formwork and all-steel large formwork are seen.
2.2 Strengthen quality management and improve the use of steel formwork
Korean template companies can continuously develop new products on the basis of learning advanced foreign template technology, and get a lot of applications in construction projects. Such as 63-type steel frame plywood formwork system and aluminum alloy formwork system, the maximum size of the plate surface is 1500 x 600mm, the template is light in weight, flexible in assembly and disassembly, convenient in handling and strong in versatility.
After the modular modulus of China's composite steel formwork is enlarged, the maximum formwork size is 1800 x 600 mm. The combination steel formwork is also characterized by light weight, good rigidity, flexible assembly and disassembly, strong versatility, convenient handling, good durability, and can be assembled and assembled. . Due to the small size of the plate surface of the composite steel formwork and the large number of joints, it is difficult to meet the requirements of the fair-faced concrete construction project. Therefore, the use of the combined steel formwork is greatly reduced, and even some cities have proposed not to use the combined steel formwork.
Compared with the 63-type steel frame plywood formwork and the aluminum alloy formwork of Korea, the combined steel formwork has little difference except for the heavy weight. Japanese composite steel formwork has been used for 50 years, and it is still widely used in the case of large-scale application of formwork systems such as steel frame plywood. China's composite steel formwork has been applied for 25 years, while other new formwork systems have not been developed or widely promoted and applied. It is necessary to eliminate the combined steel formwork and replace the steel formwork with wood (bamboo) plywood. Wood", the national policy of saving wood. In addition, the construction process of such bulk disassembly does not form a template system, labor and materials, and technology is backward.
Although China's composite steel formwork has been applied for 25 years, some of its advantages have not yet been realized.
(1) The Japanese composite steel formwork processing has formed an automated production line, and the product quality is guaranteed. Therefore, it can still be applied in a large number of clear water concrete projects. The production equipment of most steel formwork factories in China is simple, the process is backward, and the product quality is difficult to meet the standard requirements. With the fierce competition in the steel formwork market, the quality of steel formwork products is getting worse and worse, and many manufacturers adopt the modified steel plate processing, which seriously affects Service life. Leasing companies are reluctant to buy good quality steel forms because once they are rented, they return a poor quality steel formwork. Steel formwork plants are also reluctant to invest in technological transformations, using advanced equipment, because this will increase product costs. With such a vicious circle, the quality of the steel formwork is getting worse and worse, and the construction requirements cannot be met.
(2) In the standard design of steel formwork in China, the specification of the template system is up to 125 kinds, but the general steel formwork factory only produces about 40 kinds, and only 30 kinds are used in actual construction, accounting for 25%. There are 28 kinds of specifications for accessories. The average manufacturer only produces 3 to 4 kinds, and there are about 10 kinds of actual construction, accounting for 35%. Most steel formwork plants only produce universal formwork and do not produce special formwork and accessory accessories in standard designs. In the construction of steel formwork, most construction units use the existing materials of this unit instead of special templates and accessories, so that the use effect of the steel formwork system is not fully exerted.
2.3 Actively develop a new template system based on China's national conditions
At present, most of the wall formwork systems in Europe and the United States use a frameless formwork system and a framed formwork system. Japan and South Korea have also promoted the use of steel frame plywood templates. In the early 1990s, China developed a steel frame bamboo slab formwork. From 1994 to 1996, under the strong promotion of the Ministry of Construction, as one of the 10 new technical contents of the construction industry, it has been widely used in many key projects. Due to the failure of the quality of the bamboo rubber sheet, the processing precision of the steel frame is poor, the design of the template system is not perfect, and the service life of the steel frame bamboo sheet metal template cannot meet the requirements of the construction project, so the steel frame bamboo glue board template will soon be After being eliminated, the all-steel template was rapidly developed.
With the establishment of a large number of wood plywood factories, the price of wood plywood formwork has decreased, and the quality of laminating plywood has been greatly improved. Therefore, wood plywood formwork has been rapidly applied in construction projects, and the actual annual usage has reached 1.1 million M3. Because most of the wood plywood templates used by construction companies are plain panels, the number of uses is only 4 to 5 times. The waste of wood resources is very serious. Especially China's forest resources are poor, saving wood and protecting the ecology is a top priority. As a plywood formwork for construction, it should be used 20 to 30 times to improve the utilization of wood and save wood.
Active development of frameless plywood formwork system and steel frame plywood formwork system is the development direction. Now China has made great progress in the processing quality of plywood and steel frame, and many companies are also developing new formwork systems. However, due to the fact that there is no clear requirement for the surface quality requirements of fair-faced concrete in China, it is not classified, and the requirements for patchwork of the formwork are very demanding. There are many projects for surface decoration of clear-water concrete surfaces, and there is no template joint on the concrete surface. It is a quality excess.
Foreign advanced formwork technology mainly adopts steel frame plywood formwork, and the surface of clear water concrete is allowed to have template joint seam. China's formwork technology lags behind foreign advanced formwork technology, and the price is much lower than that of foreign formwork. However, the surface quality of concrete is required to be higher than that of foreign countries. According to the current requirements for concrete surface quality in China, foreign advanced steel frame plywood formwork cannot be promoted and applied in China. Therefore, we must solve the problem of understanding the surface quality requirements of fair-faced concrete, and clarify the surface quality level of clear water concrete, in order to promote the progress of our formwork technology, and promote the development of new formwork technology.
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