Overview of objectively detecting image quality color scale elements

10% tone / highlight

Highlight refers to halftone dots with dots between 1% and about 20%. These are color patches with uniform density, which are printed with cyan, magenta, yellow, and black inks. These chromaticity values ​​are visually It is useful to evaluate the plate-making process, as over-sensitization of the positive plate will "shrink" or make these small dots lost. These color patches can also be used to measure the value of high-gloss dots when the machine is running. Some color standards even contain 3% to 5% Outlets.

25% tone / quarter tone

These uniform color patches contain a dot value of 25%, and the more accurate quarter tones range from 20% to 40%. They are usually printed in cyan, magenta, yellow, and black, and sometimes red, green, and blue. Overprint printing, sometimes with three-color and four-color gray balance element printing.

50% chroma / midtone

These uniform color patches contain a halftone value of 50%, and the more accurate halftone range is between 40% and 60%. They are usually printed in cyan, magenta, yellow and black, and sometimes printed in red, green and blue overlay , And sometimes printed with three-color and four-color gray balance elements. Midtones are very important for people to evaluate the quality of images.

75% chroma / three-quarter tone

The three-quarter adjustment value is very important to ensure that the chroma is clear and vivid in a specific printing process. For example, in Newspaper Printing, using 85% chromaticity will not produce printing contrast, because this chromaticity value is usually printed in solid, so 65% or 70% chromaticity value is sufficient when printing newspapers. When choosing chromaticity values ​​for printing contrast, a critical three-quarter chromaticity value that maintains vivid colors under good printing conditions and will block under bad printing conditions should be determined.

Dark tone

The dark tone contains a half-tone halftone dot with a chromaticity value of about 85% or a uniform color patch up to 95% and 98%. This chromaticity value provides a basis for the visual plate-making process, as overexposed plates will fill or block their empty areas. These objects can be used to measure the dots of the image copied in the dark and dark areas of the image.

Some color code manufacturers stack both highlight and dark tone dots on a single color mark to facilitate rapid detection of extreme half-tone tone dot reproduction.

Monochrome field

Each solid patch of primary color can be used to measure solid ink density, calculate dot expansion and print contrast. Measurement of these color patches can also be used to estimate primary color chromaticity errors and gray balance, which is very helpful for the determination of printing process characteristics.

Two-color overprint

The two-color overprint field can be used to measure the accuracy and gray balance of the green, red, and blue overprint colors of register printing.

Three-color overprint

The three-color overprint chroma is composed of equal parts of yellow, magenta, and cyan dots. It is often used to detect color balance, and it can print a brownish color against the gray balance color block.

The three-color overprint field can be used to objectively measure the type of field density printed by the three colors on the printing press. Overprinting objects in the field also allows subjective and objective measurement of the accuracy of overprinting of the third color based on the first two colors that have been overprinted.

Four-color black label

Total dot area coverage refers to total area coverage (TAC), and these values ​​are used to estimate the total density after overprinting. SWOP stipulates that the total value of half-tones in the dark part of the color separation process cannot exceed 300% (remember: 400% produced by the solid part in all four-color printing is the maximum); the color code required in the publishing field Often includes color patches with a total dot area of ​​300%. In general, the color combination of this object requires about 79% cyan, 68% quality, 68% yellow and 85% black. In contrast, the SNAP specification for Non-Heat Advertising Printing (No Thermal Advertising Printing) stipulates that the total outlet area should not exceed 260%. In the dark tone area of ​​SNAP, the color range of color separation is usually 70% to 80% of cyan, 70% to 80% of the product, 70% to 80% of yellow and 20% to 50% of black.

The four-color black marker can be used to measure the above-mentioned total dot area. At the same time, it also takes into account the factors of registration change at this point on the tone curve. Sometimes, in the specification that the total dot area is also used in the actual image part, these color patches are also used for background color removal. In order to obtain this maximum value, color separation operators often use the color separation method of background color removal to reduce the half-tone dot value, and remove the color half-tone dot value from the dark tone overprint area without affecting the visual effect of the shadow area .

Color Balance Hexagon

The color balance hexagons developed by Brunner Systems are used to describe the elements of color balance conversion. The hexagon contains gray-balanced color patches that are overprinted with 50% cyan, 41% product, and 41% yellow half-tone tones, indicating that the three printing primary colors have smaller dot expansion (including unevenness) when color conversion The expansion of its outlets). Using a density meter to measure the hexagon, and through special software processing, it can display the dot expansion value of the three printing primary colors.

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